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The History of Hemp in America: The Most Important Details to Remember
Hemp cultivation dates back to 8000 BCE from regions in Asia, which we now call China and Taiwan. Over 10,000 years of cultivation put this plant at one of the first and oldest agricultural commodities known to humanity.
As the years passed, hemp started appearing in different parts of the world such as Russia, Greece, Europe, Jerusalem, Persia, Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Spain, Brazil, and more. In religious Hinduism and Persian documents, historians even referred to hemp as “Sacred Grass” and “King of Seeds.”
Throughout those years, people harvested hemp for its seeds and oil, as it was very rich in amino acids and nutrients. However, societies quickly realized that hemp could be used to make paper, pottery, rope, fishing nets, and thousands of other materials.
As hemp grew in popularity, North Americans became acquainted with the plant, adopting it in 1606 — and American farmers began harvesting it in the same ways ancient cultivators did. American farmers used hemp for rope, paper, clothing, and even lamp fuels. By the 1700s, it was illegal for farmers not to grow hemp.
Founding fathers George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson grew hemp — and Betsy Ross made the first American Flag using industrial hemp. Hemp was being grown by many Americans and it was bettering the environment and providing people around the world with healthy and natural resources.
However, due to negative propaganda, cannabis as a whole, including hemp, was made illegal in 1970 under the Controlled Substances Act. This criminalization systematically led people across the nation away from a natural resource and a healthy alternative to conventional medicine.
Common misconceptions about hemp
The criminalization of hemp gave way to many misconceptions about hemp and its relationship to marijuana. Biologically speaking, hemp and marijuana are both a part of the cannabis genus known as Cannabis sativa. However, these two plants are entirely different in many ways.
Regardless of what some may say, hemp and marijuana can be identified fairly easily. To the untrained eye, this may be a different story. But when you know what to look for, it can be easy to see their differences.
The first differentiating indicator is the height of these two plants. Marijuana is a short, bushy-like plant. Its leaves are more broad with dense buds and have tiny organ-like hairs covering it. The hemp plant, however, is much taller, averaging 20 ft in height. Its frame and leaves are skinnier in size, with its leaves concentrated toward the top of the plant.
Another main difference between these two plants is their chemical makeup and, more specifically, how much tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is found in each. People understand that THC is responsible for the psychoactive effect that creates a “high.”
On average, marijuana naturally contains about 5-20% of THC, while some premium strains contain 25-30% of THC potency. However, hemp only contains trace amounts of THC, a maximum of 0.3%, which makes it impossible for you to receive a psychoactive effect.
Like all plant species, there is a male and female. Most people believe hemp is the male marijuana plant — but hemp can be male, female or both. To assess the gender of the hemp plant, farmers have to look at the buds as soon as they start to develop.
Initially, all of the buds will look the same. However, a male plant will eventually develop characteristics that look like testicles, and seeds will form in that part of the plant. Farmers have to get rid of those plants because one male can pollinate around four thousand females, turning everything into seeds. But if the male plants don’t fertilize, the harvest will turn into blossom, resulting in resin that will be the female hormone.
Where hemp stands federally and legally
While the government criminalized hemp in 1970, in more modern times, the plant is making a comeback.
The 2014 Farm Bill became the topic of discussion everywhere for people in the hemp industry. The new law indicated that under certain circumstances, industrial hemp could be grown in a state as long as farmers grew it under the counsel of “institutions of higher education.” This rule meant that, in order to grow hemp, it had to be for agricultural or academic research, such as agricultural pilot programs permitted by the federal law.
Moreover, the legislation defined hemp as a cannabis plant that contained no more than 0.3% of THC on a “dry weight basis,” as THC was a Schedule I controlled substance. But even plants with 0.3% or less concentration of THC were still considered illegal if a non-licensed grower was harvesting the plant.
Insert the 2018 Farm Bill. This legislation hit a significant milestone in the hemp industry, which went into effect in January 2019. This bill stated that the cultivation and production of hemp was legal in all 50 states as long as hemp plants didn’t exceed 0.3% of THC.
Additionally, and more importantly, this bill helped change the classification of hemp, transitioning it from a Schedule I controlled substance to a legal remedy. This new classification means that hemp and hemp derived products can now be purchased and sold without the federal law intervening. Moreover, hemp extract companies can now take full advantage of banks, insurance, and other processes around the market.
The uses of hemp
With the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp is starting to become increasingly relevant in American society again. The fiber found in the hemp plant has been used to make a wide range of products, from twine and rope to clothes, fishnets, and thousands of other textiles that we use daily. For example, here are the most popular products made out of hemp that we are seeing in our stores today.
Skin care products
It’s no secret that hemp produces some of the best oils on the market today. Hemp alone contains a number of nutrients, and it’s high in essential fatty acids. Applying hemp-derived body oils or lotions can moisturize the skin and help with cell regeneration, such as dry or cracked skin.
Hemp paper is not only durable, but it’s also environmentally friendly, as it prevents the use of trees and helps protect wildlife. Moreover, it’s much more economical, too, which is why more people are using it.
As we know, hemp is very durable. Clothing types such as jeans, sportswear, lingerie, and other fashionable apparel undergo some wear and tear over time. Hemp clothing, however, not only lasts longer, but it’s also very comfortable, and again, great for the environment. Clothing companies like Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, and even Armani use hemp fibers in their sought-after products.
The future of hemp
As hemp continues to increase its presence once again, the plant will become more of a cash crop across the United States. The advantages of legalizing hemp will go much further than the therapeutic benefits of hemp extracts and skin care products. In fact, people are starting to create plastics and biofuel using hemp.
The plant is even being used to help clean up sites filled with heavy metals and pollution. Hemp is such a sustainable crop that people are using it as an alternative for concrete, cotton, and a number of other materials that are used daily. Taking steps to incorporate hemp into our day-to-day activities will not only help us feel better, but it will also improve the environment we live in as well.
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